Fluids Physics Pdf

A Level Physics Specification Pearson Edexcel Level 3 Advanced GCE in Physics (9PH0) First teaching from September 2015 First certification from 2017 Issue 3. AP Physics 2: Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Lessons / Tutorials: Click here for Ms. High Potential Low Potential. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The existence and nature of viscosity can be demonstrated by. Liquid Viscosity and Gas Viscosity PDF. This chapter contains a short discussion of some fundamental plasma phenomena. Water hammer (fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave that occurs when the fluid flowing in a particular direction is forced to stop or change direction. Steady flow is laminar flow which means that the particles flow along streamlines - that is, every particle moves along the same path as previous particles followed. fluid density, and B Ü is the body force on the fluid per unit volume. The author is a professor of petroleum engineering at NTNU. This is called the buoyant force. Lab 6: Fluids and Drag I. Fluid statics is the physics of stationary fluids. (Cambridge) 2004. 0 International License. Secondly, at any point within a static fluid, the pressure is the same in all directions. , liquids and gases. Fluid Statistics: Pascal's law. The fluid property responsible for those forces is pressure, which is a normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area. 4 Ensembles in phase space. Physics 11. The forces due to these impacts can be combined into a single force the buoyant force. [pdf]download allen physics chapter wise notes and problems with solutions [PDF] DOWNLOAD H. in Physics Education, Marmara University, Turkey, 1991 M. physics (classes xi –xii) The syllabus for Physics at the Higher Secondary Stage has been developed with a view that this stage of school education is crucial and challenging as it is a transition from general science to discipline-based. 60 10 C 19 Neutron mass, 1. 4526 [email protected] Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. Q&A for active researchers, academics and students of physics Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. I will appreciate learning any corrections that should be made. This first-year, graduate-level text and reference book covers the fundamental concepts and twenty-first-century applications of six major areas of classical physics that every masters- or PhD-level physicist should be exposed to, but often isn't: statistical physics, optics (waves of all sorts), elastodynamics, fluid mechanics, plasma physics, and special and general rela. Physics 151 Class Exercise: Fluids 2 1. Fluid mechanics is composed of two subfields: fluid statics, which is the study of fluids at rest; and fluid dynamics, which is the study of fluids in motion. See how pressure changes as you change fluids, gravity, container shapes, and volume. the acquired physics and mathematical knowledge. We will work with laminar flow. Grounded in physics education research, FlipItPhysics is a complete course solution for the calculus–based and algebra–based physics courses that redefines the interaction between students, instructors, and course content—inside and outside of lecture. Fluid Statistics: Pascal's law. Just as for kinetic friction between solids, to keep the top plate moving requires a steady force. Complex physics (like multi-phase flows) involve simple physical models Conventional CFD LBGK. Fluid Statistics: Pascal's law. At this moment of extreme stress and heating, the bubble’s contents have approached solid densities, and the flash of light is emitted. Don't show me this again. • Fluids in Games • Heightfield Fluids • A very simple program • Physics background • Object interaction • Particle Based Fluids • Simple particle systems • Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) 4 Offline Fluid Simulation • State of the art is impressive! • Google “Robert Bridson”, “Ron Fedkiw”, “James O’Brien. The most familiar fluid is of course water. course in classical physics, and a knowledge of elementary differential and integral calculus. We start this chapter with a detailed discussion of pressure, including absoluteand gage. The American Journal of Physics focuses on novel approaches to laboratory and classroom teaching, insightful articles on topics in classic and modern physics, apparatus notes, and historical and cultural topics. Applied Physics 298r A fluid dynamics tour 17 5 April 2004 Elementary Ideas VIII •Newton’s second law: ratio of inertial effects to viscous effects in the flow Re= r m ULEmphasizes inter-relation of size, speed, viscosity Osborne Reynolds (1842–1912) mass. Slide 13-23. Pressure is defined as force per unit area. McDonough Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0503 c 1987, 1990, 2002, 2004, 2009. Introduction to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition Douglas Packard May 9, 2013 Abstract This essay examines the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thousless transition in the two-dimensional XY model. In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. In physics, fluid flow has all kinds of aspects — steady or unsteady, compressible or incompressible, viscous or nonviscous, and rotational or irrotational, to name a few. The density of water is ρ water = 1 g/mL = 1 g/cm 3 = 1 kg/L. Definition of Fluids In this chapter we study fluids. Linear momentum equation for fluids can be developed using Newton's 2nd Law which states that sum of all forces must equal the time rate of change of the momentum, σF = d(mV)/dt. (7634 views) Computational Fluid Dynamics: Technologies and Applications by Igor V. Physics is filled with equations and formulas that deal with angular motion, Carnot engines, fluids, forces, moments of inertia, linear motion, simple harmonic motion, thermodynamics, and work and energy. Buoyancy 4. Lecture Notes Download Course Materials; This class includes the opportunity for students to use the Personal Response System (PRS). Energy is added to the fluid by the rotating blades, and both pressure and absolute velocity are increased as the fluid lows from the eye to the periphery of the blades. In the MKS system the unit of viscosity is Ns/m2 whereas in the CGS system the unit of viscosity is the poise (1 poise = 1dyne-sec/cm2). Viscosity Michael Fowler, UVa. If a fluid is within a container then the depth of an object placed in that fluid can be measured. Click a bookmark on the left. Army TACOM Life Cycle Command under Contract No. The two­fluid model simplifies the complicated Kondo lattice problem to a problem of two interacting fluids. Background 1. Petrophysics MSc Course Notes Fluid Saturation and Capillary Pressure Dr. The Kramer and Derby student dining halls also have had free tutoring in math, physics, chemistry and writing. A powerhouse of knowledge, a foundation stone for the future success, the textbooks play a crucial role in achieving success in various engineering entrances like JEE Main Advanced. Torricelli's theorem 1. weight of a body when it sinks in the fluid. The following section consists of Chemistry Multiple Choice questions on Fluid Mechanics. Wright conducts research across a broad area including ultrashort nonlinear pulse propagation in transparent media, Vertical External Cavity Semiconductor Lasers (VECSELs), nonlinear optics of photon fluids, and optical binding of particles. Although I have carefully checked the values given here, it is quite possible that some typographical errors remain. Learn more about pressure, buoyant force, and flowing fluid so you can appreciate the sometimes invisible, but crucial, effect they have on us and the world around us. Fluid flow exerts hydrodynamic forces on a structure and deforms and/or translates the structure • Fluid flow can also modify thermal stresses within the structure • Deformed or translated structure imparts velocity to the fluid domain and changes its shape and thus changes the fluid flow. •The Earth is bathed in fluids: • The oceans cover 70% of the surface area. Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire by physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects and is starting to make an impact in real-time games. We will work with laminar flow. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, Aug 1, 2006. Slide 13-23. Grades, attendance, calendar, and other useful school related resources are at Renweb. course in classical physics, and a knowledge of elementary differential and integral calculus. Estimate the pressure underneath the ice. Presentation of correct physics; not much detail. Nathan Phases of matter Until now we have analyzed mostly systems in which the particles have a fixed average spatial relation to each other, i. This is called the buoyant force. When real fluids flow through pipes, two distinct forces act on them. Forces inside fluid. help Reddit App Reddit coins Reddit premium Reddit. Atmospheric pressure is like an invisible friend who is always squeezing you with a big hug. Fluid Mechanics is of fundamental importance as it talks both about the fluids both at rest and in motion. We will need to study fluid dynamics to understand the following. 0 cm in diameter. Fluid dynamics multiple choice questions and answers (MCQs), fluid dynamics quiz answers pdf 1 to learn online applied physics courses. In tests conducted by 3M, particle performance was evaluated using Novec 7100 fluid in a surface tension gradient vapor dryer. Rod Linn leads development, implementation, testing, and application of computational models of wildfire behavior in the Earth and environmental sciences division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. This means that a fluid with slow speed will exert more pressure than a fluid which is moving faster. The Material Point Method for the Physics-Based Simulation of Solids and Fluids by Chenfanfu Jiang Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science University of California, Los Angeles, 2015 Professor Demetri Terzopoulos, Co-chair Professor Joseph M. 3 Drilling Fluid Selection 17 2. All the fluid physics will be calculated inside this cube. Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Notes Physics Chapter 10 • Fluids are the sustances which can flow e. •The Earth is bathed in fluids: • The oceans cover 70% of the surface area. Fluids dynamics and plasma physics P 7 HOT GAS IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES Abell 2029 is a dynamically relaxed cluster of galaxies at z = 0:0779 (300Mpc). 8 N and is resting on the ground. Selina ICSE Solutions for Class 9 Physics Chapter 4 Pressure in Fluids and Atmospheric Pressure. Visit GRE Online at www. Pressure is a force that tries to burst the pipe, tk h itank or pump housing. For the most part, it is laid out in small segments or "cards", true to its original development in HyperCard. We will work with laminar flow. Teran, Co-chair Simulating fluids and solid materials undergoing large deformation remains an impor-. Liouville's theorem 10 1. Learn how fluids such as blood exert a pressure that varies with height 2. 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AP Physics 2: Fluid Mechanics Fluid Mechanics Lessons / Tutorials: Click here for Ms. We start this chapter with a detailed discussion of pressure, including absoluteand gage. Introduction to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition Douglas Packard May 9, 2013 Abstract This essay examines the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thousless transition in the two-dimensional XY model. [PDF]Fluid Mechanics textbook by RK Bansal free Download: It is one of the popular books for Mechanical Engineering and Civil Engineering students. The existence of life is intimately related to the characteristics of matter in these ppqyhases. To measure the velocity, we measure the “range” (x) that the fluid travels before it hits the ground after it ha dropped a distance h 1. Physics JEE Main fluids Paper Solutions. Fluids Computational Fluid Dynamics. If the density of the flowing fluid is constant we have incompressible fluid, for example that of a liquid. 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Computational Fluid Dynamics for Urban Physics: Importance, scales, possibilities, limitations and ten tips and tricks towards accurate and reliable simulations Bert Blocken Building Physics and Services, Department of the Built Environment, Eindhoven University of Technology,. Both liquids and gases are classified as fluids. Investigate how pressure changes in air and water. With solids it is often convenient. • It is essential that you practice thinking physics, that is the only way to recognize when the principles come up in the reading. Results from past research of Fluid Physics in Space. Euler’s equation of fluid statics. As the speed of the droplet continues to increase,. Also shown in Figure 6 is the fact that the collapse velocity of the bubble reaches over four times the ambient speed of sound in the gas. Secondly, at any point within a static fluid, the pressure is the same in all directions. Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics provides a forum for the cross-fertilization of ideas, tools and techniques across all disciplines in which fluid flow plays a role, such as: aeronautical sciences, geophysical and environmental sciences, life sciences and materials sciences. Home » Fluid Mechanics Objective type Questions and Answers » 250 TOP Fluid Mechanics - Mechanical Engineering Multiple choice Questions and Answers List 250 TOP Fluid Mechanics - Mechanical Engineering Multiple choice Questions and Answers List Latest Fluid Mechanics Questions and Answers pdf free download 1. 1CQ Suppose you drink a liquid through a straw. The pressure is. u r 2002, published in Review of Modern Physics 77, 1 (2005). AEPT, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany. Fluid = too many particles (e. In this lab, you are to do two experiments involving Archimedes’ principle involving 1) a metal block submerged in water and 2) a helium-filled balloon. We are providing Fluid Mechanics textbook by RK Bansal PDF for free download in pdf. 02 10 mol Universal gravitational constant, G. You must enable JavaScript in order to use this site. The Kramer and Derby student dining halls also have had free tutoring in math, physics, chemistry and writing. Journal of Fluid Mechanics is the leading international journal in the field and is essential reading for all those concerned with developments in fluid mechanics. Although I have carefully checked the values given here, it is quite possible that some typographical errors remain. 43) and with corresponding dynamic viscosity within the average cited range of healthy human blood (4. What Is a Fluid? • State the common phases of matter. I am a new member here, nice to meet you. Pressure & Fluid Mechanics Coletta: Physics Fundamentals Ch. Selection Criteria The 20 tricks included here have been tried and tested and chosen according to specific criteria:. • The understanding that the buoyant force is the net force exerted by the fluid and is directed upwards. To begin with, it's in Latin, and I don't even think there is a Japanese translation. Astronomy Office 2535 Sterling 262. 3 atm at street level flows into an office building at a speed of 0. Free body diagram for a car on a small section of track. 8 N and is resting on the ground. Essentially, what we’re talking about here, is a gas or liquid. (The density of ice is 918 kg/m3. Department of Energy FSC-6910 Washington, D. Slide 13-23. A brick weighs 17. With this cube selected, go to to the Physics context of the Properties window. (Harvard University) 2004. 18kb; Physics 10-09. Science Bowl PHYSICS Physics - 4 PHYS-91; Short Answer: A box is initially at rest on a horizontal, frictionless table. 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Explain why the liquid moves upward, against gravity, into your mouth Solution: To draw a liquid up a straw, we expand our lungs This reduces the air pressure inside the mouth to less than […]. Fluids are those substances which can flow when an external force is applied on it. [PDF] JEE Main 2019 Mathematics Solved Papers and Analysis chapterwise Oct 27, 2019; Tips for JEEMAIN 2020 Oct 26, 2019 [PDF] JEE Main 2019 Physics Solved Papers and Analysis chapterwise Sep 26, 2019 [PDF] Download Physical chemistry complete Notes for JEE Sep 24, 2019. PHYSICS - KNIGHT CALC 4E CH 14: FLUIDS AND ELASTICITY Page 15. , liquids and gases. Derive an expression for pressure in a liquid at a point which is at a depth ‘h’ units and density of liquid is ‘ρ’ units. Tritton, Physical Fluid Dynamics Oxford Scientific Publications. • Plants and trees need to create a large negative pressure in their fluid carrying tubes (several atmospheres worth since. Normal stresses are referred to as pressure p. 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Science Physics Fluids Density and Pressure. Fluid definition is - having particles that easily move and change their relative position without a separation of the mass and that easily yield to pressure : capable of flowing. In the MKS system the unit of viscosity is Ns/m2 whereas in the CGS system the unit of viscosity is the poise (1 poise = 1dyne-sec/cm2). , the drag force increases as the speed of the particle increases. Results from past research of Fluid Physics in Space. Course content Introduction: Basic concepts of fluid mechanics. 1 P = g(h P = g(h. The AP Physics 1 and Physics 2 Algebra-Based courses are designed to promote student learning of essential physics content and foster development of deep conceptual understanding through an inquiry-based model of instruction. The peak of the hemisphere is 0. Pressure is a force that tries to burst the pipe, tk h itank or pump housing. The thermostat consisted of a bimetallic spring such as used in the gage type thermometer and a switch, usually a mercury level switch. Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance or object, defined as \(\rho = \frac{m}{V}\). This law states that when a force acts on an object, it will cause the object to accelerate. 67 10 k 27 g m p Electron charge magnitude, e 1. Bernoulli’s Theorem for Fluids at Rest. 0 International License. Here you can download the free Fluid Mechanics Pdf Notes - FM Pdf Notes latest and Old materials with multiple file links to download. The forces due to these impacts can be combined into a single force the buoyant force. 1 )) h = 1000 kg/m. Getting Help. The initial kinetic energy of the droplet is partially converted into potential en- ergy of deformation of the film, which then acts like a liquid trampoline: the droplet bounces off the film Fig. Derive an expression for pressure in a liquid at a point which is at a depth ‘h’ units and density of liquid is ‘ρ’ units. This book is designed as a one semester coursebook providing a sound foundation in continuum mechanics. docx file or We encourage you to use the Physics of Fluids. In section 2 we introduce ey plasma properties like quasik - neutrality, shielding, particle transport processes and sheath formation. Download for free (or view) PDF file Physics Fluid Mechanics for Competitive Exams. Physics-Based Simulations of Fluid/Structure/Dynamics Interactions in Scenarios Associated with Blast Computational Engineering Physics Lab. This book contains 21 chapter with objective type question. In this question, we're told that an unknown gas is held within a container. I will appreciate learning any corrections that should be made. the relative velocity between fluid and solid, the shape of the solid, the density of the gas and its viscosity. AEPT, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany. Ultrasound is made up of mechanical waves that can transmit through different materials like fluids, soft tissues and solids. Linear advection 2. , substances that can flow, are the subjects of this chapter. Lab 6: Fluids and Drag I. It is an imporant example of phase tran-sitions occuring without an ordered phase or symmetry breaking, and. physics (classes xi –xii) The syllabus for Physics at the Higher Secondary Stage has been developed with a view that this stage of school education is crucial and challenging as it is a transition from general science to discipline-based. Pressure has units of N/m 2. Fluid dynamics of wildfires Once a wildfire is ignited, complex interactions with the local winds affect how it behaves. When a solid object is wholly or partly immersed in a fluid, the fluid molecules are continually striking the submerged surface of the object. V g F m g B. Density is a measurement of an object’s mass per unit volume of space that it occupies. There aren’t really enough of them to constitute practice”, but if you have difficulty with any of them, you should probably find a math review (there is usually one in almost any introductory physics text. 8 Hydrostatics (Fluids at Rest) 8-1 Three Phases of Matter From our everyday experience, we have become familiar with the fact that matter occurs in three different forms-solid,liquid, and gas. a) Find the weight density in lb/ft3. Lab 4: Fluids, Viscosity, and Stokes' Law--full version I. The goal is to resolve a reliable geological model whose elastic properties (seismic velocity, attenuation, and reflectivity) and fluid-flow properties (porosity, permeability, and. It is produced when an interface between water and air is heated in just one. The thermal physics [5] of supercritical fluids is of a great value for researchers and practitioners: For researchers, it is important to build precise mod-. , shotput) • In other cases, fluid forces are significant - badminton, baseball, swimming, cycling, etc. About DC Pandey Mechanics Part 2. Astronomy Office 2535 Sterling 262. Introduction A. This chapter contains a short discussion of some fundamental plasma phenomena. This test may contain some. Fluid flow is a key player for the. , substances that can flow, are the subjects of this chapter. Download Free eBook pdf. First, I want to introduce my self, I am a master student of physics and I am studying CFD right now. Quantity Symbol Value Unit uncert. NCERT Question Papers for Class 11 Free Download. Pressure in a Fluid Pressure in a fluid of uniform density (Static Case) p2-p1=-ρg(y2-y1) p=po+ ρgh Pressure is the same for any 2 points at the same level. physics –you should know most of what you need to know already. No presentation of physics. About DC Pandey Mechanics Part 2. In general, the drag force grows larger with increased flow velocity, but viscosity is a complex phenomenon that cannot be reduced to the simple relationship “drag force is proportional to velocity”. Presentation of correct physics; not much detail. P = Patm + ρgd You noticed on the previous slide that the areas canceled out. With solids it is often convenient. The fluid property responsible for those forces is pressure, which is a normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area. • Properties of Pressure in a Fluid • Pascal’s Principle • Measurements of Pressure 3. [pdf]download allen physics chapter wise notes and problems with solutions [PDF] DOWNLOAD H. Fluid Physics of Life We also offer individual fellowships (phd, postdoc, sabbatical). Download the PDFs at BYJU'S. During 1979-1990 he was editor-in-chief of the ASME Journal of Fluids Engi-neering and then served from 1991 to 1997 as chairman of the ASME Board of Edi-tors and of the Publications Committee. Above a certain speed, the flow becomes turbulent (b). 1 Mass Density and Specific Gravity. The data used. Governing Equations of Fluid Dynamics J. Tech in electrical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras and his Ph. There aren’t really enough of them to constitute practice”, but if you have difficulty with any of them, you should probably find a math review (there is usually one in almost any introductory physics text. 60 10 C 19 Neutron mass, 1. Consider a point x, at a depth ‘h’ in a liquid of. The pressure is. 5 Class 11 Physics - Mechanical properties of Fluids. This rule is true both for gases and liquids, since they are both fluids. the relative velocity between fluid and solid, the shape of the solid, the density of the gas and its viscosity. Blandford. The Material Point Method for the Physics-Based Simulation of Solids and Fluids by Chenfanfu Jiang Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science University of California, Los Angeles, 2015 Professor Demetri Terzopoulos, Co-chair Professor Joseph M. The initial kinetic energy of the droplet is partially converted into potential en- ergy of deformation of the film, which then acts like a liquid trampoline: the droplet bounces off the film Fig. Wattsa) and Gary Moore Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 ~Received 24 September 2002; accepted 1 April 2003! We have measured the drag coefficient on an American football oriented so that its major axis is pointed directly into the wind. One is the frictional forces exerted on the fluid by the walls of the pipe and the other is the viscous forces within the fluid. As the impeller rotates, fluid is sucked in through the eye of the casing and flows radially outward. This physics video tutorial provides a basic introduction into pressure and fluids. Liquids and gases are fluids. Turbulent flow is when the flow of fluid produce irregular whirls and eddies occur. Afterward, teach them to. 60 10 J 19 Electron mass, 9. Because these fluids are not in motion, that means they have achieved a stable equilibrium state, so fluid statics is largely about understanding these fluid equilibrium conditions. Energy is added to the fluid by the rotating blades, and both pressure and absolute velocity are increased as the fluid lows from the eye to the periphery of the blades. Fluids : Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal's law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes), Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Buoyancy, floatation and Archimedes' principle; Viscosity, Strokes' law, Terminal velocity, Streamline flow, Reynold's number, Bernoulli's theorem and its applications. a static fluid will always be normal to the surface. • Initial velocity is the same as the “previous” velocity (that’s inertia) • Acceleration determined by the change in the potential, ie. Linear momentum equation for fluids can be developed using Newton's 2nd Law which states that sum of all forces must equal the time rate of change of the momentum, σF = d(mV)/dt. Essentially, what we’re talking about here, is a gas or liquid. What is the smallest number of whole bricks (including the one on the ground) that could be used, so that their weight creates a. 100 TOP FLUID MECHANICS Interview Questions and Answers <----CLICK HERE 51. Modern Classical Physics: Optics, Fluids, Plasmas, Elasticity Subject. The forces due to these impacts can be combined into a single force the buoyant force. Understand the motion of objects in fluids and how it depends on viscosity and density. Geometry setup fast 5. Hydrostatics 5 1/9 The vehicle is filled with oil. How is Hydrostatic Force on the vertical or inclined planes determined? Basic conditions for a Plane surface submerged in a fluid - Force on the surface: Perpendicular to the surface (No τ). Wagner Department of Physics North Dakota State University alexander. Some of these characteristics reflect properties of the liquid itself, and others focus on how the fluid is moving. Complex physics (like multi-phase flows) involve simple physical models Conventional CFD LBGK. Special Topics in Physics: Introduction to Fluid Dynamics Instructor: Dan Zwanziger October 15, 2011 Dear Students, To aid you in your course planning, I would like to bring to your attention that a Special Topics course in Fluid Dynamics, with geophysical and other applications, will be o ered in the. 1 Mass Density and Specific Gravity. Getting Help. 8 N and is resting on the ground. A Fluid is substance that can flow, like a Liquid or a Gas. Students "vote" on answers electronically and their answers are tallied. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: